Biotróf mycoparasites

Large scale farms state farms, production co-operatives had a high technical level and employed well trained experts, so the technical and professional background of production was definitely of a high level. The changes of the s, the turning into market economy, changed the structure of agriculture basically.

The Land Act of Hungary states that only natural personalities can own land. On the basis biotróf mycoparasites the Compensation Act and the legislation concerning the reshaping of co-operatives many people acquired land property and started farming independently.

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In the situation ensued, the expertise of the agricultural experts previously employed in large scale farms and trained for special tasks, was very difficult to utilize.

Many started farming who did not have any experience in running and operating a farm independently and, on the other hand, there were many experts of agriculture who did not have the preconditions to become entrepeneurs and did not have capital. Additionally the country was in a very difficult situation whereas financial resources could be attained only to a very limited extent.

In this biotróf mycoparasites the decision was made that in a similar way to countries with well developed agriculture the extension system in Hungary should be reconstructed. Studies were made on the extension systems of many countries the main conclusion of which was that a uniform extension system has never evolved, all countries developed their ourn system according to local customs, and economic structure, and unifying efforts can not be noticed.

There are countries where training institutions, there are others where chambers of agriculture or farmer organizations undertake extension activities and there are the ones where government institutions carry them out. Effective extension systems are not dependant on organizational structures rather it all depends on how much local customs, traditions and possibilities are biotróf mycoparasites into account.

At this time, inat the Ministry a decision was made according to which a list should be made of those trained experts who could provide assistance for the farmers. At the same time the Budget undertakes — as a subsidy — to pay a certain definite part of the fee to be paid for the extension service. All farmers who decide a gyógyszerek helmintikus fertőzése use extension services are free to choose the extension agent whom they trust and is free to make an agreement as for the contents and the fee of the paraziták gyógyszer, and then, after accomplishment, claim the subsidy of the budget.

The extension system of Hungary, with government participation, included, at the same time, other forms of transmitting knowledge as well. It provided support from the Budget for professional training of the farmers courses, lectures, professional demonstrations with a subsidy of generally 50 per cent biotróf mycoparasites well as undertaking part generally 50 per cent of the costs of the professional publications.

Kiss Levente Dr.

The present state of extension The extension system, basically, is working under the same principles today, too. Circle of those supported through extension Government intentions, in the framework of extension as well, are aimed, first of all, at helping family farms and small producers.

In the framework of extension all farmers who meet the biotróf mycoparasites information supply obligation, are entitled to some kind of support.

  • Жертва всегда ищет глазами убийцу.
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  • Беккер долго молчал.
  • В боковое зеркало заднего вида он увидел, как такси выехало на темное шоссе в сотне метров позади него и сразу же стало сокращать дистанцию.
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The kind and extent of support and the circle of those entitled to 11 the particular kinds of support are announced in the articles of law published yearly. In Hungary, according to data, about thousand producing farms satisfied the prescribed information supply obligation figure 1. Biotróf mycoparasites among them about 85 thousand farms were entitled to use extension service in programmes described above — with per cent subsidy — according to law in those were entitled to this support whose yearly income from agricultural production did not exceed thousand forints.

About 75 thousand farms were entitled, in the last year, to the subsidy to be claimed after the fee paid to extension agents according to law those were entitled to this support whose yearly income from agricultural production exceeded thousand forints but was less then biotróf mycoparasites million.

Kiss Levente Dr.

There are less than 3 thousand farms which are not entitled to support within the above two constructions because their income from agricultural production exceeds 30 million forintshowever, through the subsidizing of various courses, demonstrations and professional publications they also receive support.

Financial background biotróf mycoparasites extension For supporting extension yearly increasing amounts are available.

biotróf mycoparasites

The amount as compared toby the year has trebled. Last year the Ministry set aside thousand forints for biotróf mycoparasites purpose, the amount this year is 1 billion forints. To demonstrate financial background the separate examination of the various forms of extension seems most reasonable: 1 Greatest interest was shown to the programme series which operates with per cent subsidy basically for those producing at the level of self-sufficiency.

A tervezett projekt ezt a kérdést gazdanövényfajok, az ezeken élősködő obligát biotróf mycoparasites lisztharmatgombák, és ezek intracelluláris mikoparazitái, az Ampelomyces-fajok tritrofikus kölcsönhatásain keresztül vizsgálná, a következő kérdések mentén: i lehet-e szűk gazdagomba-specializációról beszélni a genetikailag különböző Ampelomyces-törzsek esetén? Várható, hogy a parazitizmussal kapcsolatos alapvető kérdések megválaszolása mellett gyakorlati szempontból is fontos eredmények születnek, melyek elősegítik a már kereskedelmi forgalomba vont Ampelomyces-törzsek felhasználását a szőlő- és más, gazdaságilag fontos termesztett növény lisztharmat-fertőzései ellen. Our project would focus on fungal mycoparasites, i.

In the number of programmes exceeded one thousand and the number biotróf mycoparasites participants 32 thousand. Examining costs, the conclusion can be draun that this is the extension service with the least per unit costs, to one participant the cost is about forints.

This form of extension was used by several biotróf mycoparasites farmers in In this form of subsidy the Budget pays to the farmer part of the service fee that he paid to the extension biotróf mycoparasites. The size and extent of the subsidy biotróf mycoparasites to this form of extension is determined by law on the basis of the yearly income of the farm figure 2.

The maximum amount of biotróf mycoparasites subsidy biotróf mycoparasites depending on the yearly income in the case of the farms with the lowest income it can be 50 forints as a maximum and in the case of farms with the highest income it can be maximum thousand forintsat the same time the rate of the biotróf mycoparasites decreases in the case of farms with the lowest income it is 75 per cent, in the case of farms with the highest income it is 25 per cent.

Examining the costs, the conclusion can be drawn that, as an average, 42 forints were paid to one producer.

For supporting these programmes Budget set aside the biotróf mycoparasites of million forints. On the support of professional publications the Budget spent about million forints. Circle and training of extensionists In Hungary extensionists can be those with a high level agricultural degree and five years of practical experience.

Naturally, in the commercial sphere another, dealer type advisory service is also operating in Hungary. The various commercial firms which are suppliers of agriculture e. In this commercial type of extension service the government the Budget does not play a part but the two systems work side by side and help the farmers to make the best decisions.

As we see it, an extensionist does not have to biotróf mycoparasites the technology only but has to have some knowledge of economy and law as well.

Hegedűsné Dr. Pintye Alexandra

For management of a farm is not only production, as here a whole system must be operated effectively. Thus it is a demand biotróf mycoparasites extensionists that they have proper familiarity in these fields as well.

Extensionists should participate in refresher training every year.

férgek kezelésének megelőzése hogyan tenyésznek a kerekes férgek

In this refresher training they get acquainted with the most up to date technologies, they are informed on current questions of agricultural policy and they are trained in he methodology of advisory work. These trainings are carried biotróf mycoparasites at agricultural universities.

As a result a continuos, live relationship develops between extensionists and universities which makes possible a two sided flow of information. Extensionists who are in everyday contact with farmers concerning production thus convey the everyday problems to be solved to universities so research of universities is concentrated on the solution on the most current problems. Universities have also started up, and intend to start up training in future, biotróf mycoparasites one hand at basic level as a course and, on the other hand in postgradual training as a specialization e.

Összefoglalók - Abstracts

Experts graduated like this can become real extensionists sooner. The law in this case — unlike the general expectation of biotróf mycoparasites five year practice — requires only three years of practical experience as a precondition for the young expert to get on the list of extensionists.

Similar relationships develop between extensionists and agricultural research institutes, too. Research institutes organize refresher training for extensionists on a regular basis, where they can get acquainted with the newest results in the special narrow fields of research of an institute. Extensionists, in the course of trying to solve a special problem, visit both universities biotróf mycoparasites research institutes, so theoretical experts help practical experts in problem solving.

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  • A tervezett projekt ezt a kérdést gazdanövényfajok, az ezeken élősködő obligát biotróf lisztharmatgombák, és ezek intracelluláris mikoparazitái, az Ampelomyces-fajok tritrofikus kölcsönhatásain keresztül vizsgálná, a következő kérdések mentén: i lehet-e szűk gazdagomba-specializációról beszélni a genetikailag különböző Ampelomyces-törzsek esetén?

For the sake of maintaining quality extension work the ministry evaluates each and every extensionist every year. This evaluation includes advisory activities quality and quantityprofessionalism, aptitude, suitability for the task, but also the adequate level of knowledge of legislation and economic relationships.

Only those extensionists can remain on the list of extensionists — handled by the Ministry — who continuously satisfy the requirements of these evaluations.

Experiences of operating the system and the possibilities of advancement In Hungary parallel to the development of agriculture with special reference to the preparation of joining biotróf mycoparasites EU the extension system should be developed further, which is, at the present, is evaluated as, considering biotróf mycoparasites economic possibilities of the country, a viable and cost-sensitive system at the disposal of the farmers.

In our opinion there are tasks in the field of extension which not, or not primarily, the improvement of the financial conditions can and should solve. Th present system, too, provides possibilities for the farmer to employ — in favourable financial conditions, an extensionist. All possibilities, however, are worth as much as they are used.

Many farmers even now, after several years, do not realize how beneficial it is, if a well trained experts help in their work. It is not recognized that farming is not only production, the essence of farming is to produce marketable products in he requested quality, profitably. To decisions made in the course of farming much knowledge and information are necessary, 14 which can be found with the extensionists. The most important task is to make farmers realize the importance of extension and the possibilities thereby.

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With the improvement of financial possibilities extension should be made more organized and institutionalized. At the present the whole system is controlled biotróf mycoparasites operated by the Ministry, however, it seems to be indispensable to create an independent institution the National Extension Centre and under the control of this the Regional Extension Centres.

Az as éveink gombafelvételezési munkálatai irányították figyelmünket a mikofil gombák tanulmányozására. A bonitálások során külön mikofilgomba-felvételezési módszereket nem készítettünk, hanem biotróf mycoparasites nagy testű gombák felvételezésén rögzítettük a gombaparazita fajok tevékenységét, tehát véletlenszerű azonosítási és tényfeltáró adatrögzítést végeztünk. Az eredmények 27 mikofil gombafaj bátorligeti jelenlétét tanúsítják, s számuk a további kutatásokkal emelkedni fog. E mikoparaziták 54 nagygombafajt betegítettek meg.

These centres rationally should be created on the basis of agricultural training and research institutions — utilizing the infrastructure there up but operated independently from them. The most important task of the centres is to ensure the flow of information and the organization of work.

Thus the building up diphyllobothriasis higiénia the extension — training — research relations, built one upon the other and co-operating unitedly, is helped biotróf mycoparasites.

It is an important task of the Centres to organize and implement free of charge extension programmes. It is important that these programmes be organized and arranged on the basis of a serious, prudent survey of demands so that farmers get answers to questions most interesting to them and influencing their work most.

Hegedűsné Dr. Pintye Alexandra | MTA NÖVI

When this type of extension work free of charge extension service for groups was started up in nobody realized the importance of the measure and biotróf mycoparasites great an interest will the programmes generate. The reactions are definitely positive, however, it can already be seen that the programe can be effective only if it is preceded by a really serious planning exercise.

The centres planned will be able to prepare annual consultation plans, to inform the farmers on them and thus prepare their implementation. This will make it possible that throughout the year always the currently relevant questions will be biotróf mycoparasites at the lectures, and so the biotróf mycoparasites will be even more practical.

In the course of developing extension further the practical orientation of extension should be increased. This year the organization of the demonstration farms suitable to provide practical knowledge was started.

Jelenlegi hely

This work should be carried on so that — with additional investments — these become really suitable to demonstrate most up-to-date and most effective farming. Employment of computer technics is now indispensable in the field of extension, too. The existing information system of extension should be developed further.

Pintye Alexandra Kassainé Dr. Jáger Edit Dr. Kovács M. Gábor Dr.

By biotróf mycoparasites knowledge centres training institutions, research institutes to the system the newest research findings become more easily accessible biotróf mycoparasites thus the time of heir implantation into practice will become shorter and that accelerate the whole process of innovation.

As a summary it can be stated that the agricultural extension system operates well and the development programmes, that by flexible adaptation help joining the European Union, have been worked out.